Agile product development practices have grown vastly in popularity and influence since their introduction more than twenty years ago. The Agile methodology allows for continual deployment of shippable software pieces into the hands of the client. Thus allowing and even encouraging changes by the client that would not have been possible in a Waterfall environment
These days, Agile is widely accepted as the leading methodology to use when developing software. This article aims to provide a comprehensive A – Z glossary of terms for Agile methodology (with focus on Scrum), designed to help businesses and non-IT stakeholders understand the terminology used by technical software development teams. More information can be obtained via the www.agilealliance.org and www.scrumalliance.org. Entries in this glossary have been arranged alphabetically
Details that indicate the scope of a user story and help the team and product owner determine done-ness.
The name coined for the wider set of ideas that Scrum falls within; the Agile values and principles are captured in the Agile Manifesto.
Burndown charts show work remaining over time. Work remaining is the Y axis and time is the X axis. The work remaining should jig up and down and eventually trend downward.
The Scrum books define a sprint burndown chart as a place to see daily progress, and a product burndown chart as where to show monthly (per sprint) progress.
A chart showing the evolution of an increase in a measure against time. Burn-up charts are an optional implementation within Scrum to make progress transparent.
Daily Scrum Meeting
A fifteen-minute daily meeting for each team member to answer three questions:
- “What have I done since the last Scrum meeting? (i.e. yesterday)”
- “What will I do before the next Scrum meeting? (i.e. today)”
- “What prevents me from performing my work as efficiently as possible?”
The ScrumMaster ensures that participants call sidebar meetings for any discussions that go too far outside these constraints.
The Scrum literature recommends that this meeting take place first thing in the morning, as soon as all team members arrive.
A shared understanding of expectations that software must live up to in order to be releasable into production. Managed by the Development Team.
The role within a Scrum Team accountable for managing, organizing and doing all development work required to create a releasable Increment of product every Sprint.
The process of the coming into existence or prominence of new facts or new knowledge of a fact, or knowledge of a fact becoming visible unexpectedly.
Process control type in which only the past is accepted as certain and in which decisions are based on observation, experience and experimentation. Empiricism has three pillars: transparency, inspection and adaptation.
A shared set of development and technology standards that a Development Team applies to create releasable Increments of software.
A very large user story that is eventually broken down into smaller stories; epics are often used as placeholders for new ideas that have not been thought out fully. There’s nothing wrong with having an epic, as long as it is not high priority.
The process of agreeing on a size measurement for the stories in a product backlog. Done by the team, usually using Planning Poker.
the sequence of numbers where the next number is derived by adding together the previous two (1,2,3,5,8,13,20…) ; the sequence has the quality of each interval getting larger as the numbers increase; the sequence is often used for Story Points, simply because estimates are always less accurate when dealing with epics.
Forecast (of functionality)
The selection of items from the Product Backlog a Development Team deems feasible for implementation in a Sprint.
“The How” is a term used to describe the domain of the team, as distinct for the product owner, cf “What”. Can also be described as tactic (i.e. how to win the battle).
A piece of working software that adds to previously created Increments, where the sum of all Increments -as a whole – form a product.
Anything that prevents a team member from performing work as efficiently as possible is an impediment. Each team member has an opportunity to announce impediments during the daily Scrum meeting. The ScrumMaster is charged with ensuring impediments get resolved. ScrumMasters often arrange sidebar meetings when impediments cannot be resolved on the spot in the daily Scrum meeting.
The product backlog (or “backlog”) is the requirements for a system, expressed as a prioritized list of product backlog Items. These included both functional and non-functional customer requirements, as well as technical team-generated requirements. While there are multiple inputs to the product backlog, it is the sole responsibility of the product owner to prioritize the product backlog.
During a Sprint planning meeting, backlog items are moved from the product backlog into a sprint, based on the product owner’s priorities.
Product Backlog Item
In Scrum, a product backlog item (“PBI”, “backlog item”, or “item”) is a unit of work small enough to be completed by a team in one Sprint iteration. Backlog items are decomposed into one or more tasks.
See also backlog effort estimation unit.
Product Backlog Item Effort
Some Scrum practitioners estimate the effort of product backlog items in ideal engineering days, but many people prefer less concrete-sounding backlog effort estimation units. Alternative units might include story points, function points, or “t-shirt sizes” (1 for small, 2 for medium, etc.). The advantage of vaguer units is they’re explicit about the distinction that product backlog item effort estimates are not estimates of duration. Also, estimates at this level are rough guesses that should never be confused with actual working hours.
Note that sprint tasks are distinct from product backlog items and task effort remaining is always estimated in hours.
Product Backlog refinement
The activity in a Sprint through which the Product Owner and the Development Team add granularity to the Product Backlog.
Product Burndown Chart
In Scrum, the product burndown chart is a “big picture” view of a project’s progress. It shows how much work was left to do at the beginning of each sprint. The scope of this chart spans releases; however, a release burndown chart is limited to a single release.
The following example illustrates a product burndown chart, for an example (ACME) product:
Product Owner Role
In Scrum, a single person must have final authority representing the customer’s interest in backlog prioritization and requirements questions. This person must be available to the team at any time, but especially during the sprint planning meeting and the sprint review meeting.
Challenges of being a product owner:
- Resisting the temptation to “manage” the team. The team may not self-organize in the way you would expect it to. This is especially challenging if some team members request your intervention with issues the team should sort out for itself.
- Resisting the temptation to add more important work after a Sprint is already in progress.
- Being willing to make hard choices during the sprint planning meeting.
- Balancing the interests of competing stakeholders.
A shared understanding by the Product Owner and the Development Team regarding the preferred level of description of Product Backlog items introduced at Sprint Planning.
Sizing backlog items by grouping them into relative size ranges rather than by absolute units (e.g. – hours). See Fibonacci and t-shirt sizes.
The transition of an increment of potentially shippable product from the development team into routine use by customers. Releases typically happen when one or more sprints has resulted in the product having enough value to outweigh the cost to deploy it.
“The product is released to customer or marketplace obligations. The release balances functionality, cost, and quality requirements against date commitments.” (Schwaber/Beedle, Agile Software Development with Scrum, p. 80).
Release Burndown Chart
In Scrum, the release burndown chart is a “big picture” view of a release’s progress. It shows how much work was left to do at the beginning of each sprint comprising a single release. The scope of this chart is a single release; however, a product burndown chart spans all releases.
There are three essential roles in any Scrum project:
- Product Owner
A physical board to visualize information for and by the Scrum Team, often used to manage Sprint Backlog. Scrum boards are an optional implementation within Scrum to make information visible.
The definition of Scrum, written and provided by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland, co-creators of Scrum. This definition consists of Scrum’s roles, events, artifacts, and the rules that bind them together.
A self-organizing team consisting of a Product Owner, Development Team and Scrum Master.
A set of fundamental values and qualities underpinning the Scrum framework; commitment, focus, openness, respect and courage.
The management principle that teams autonomously organize their work. Self-organization happens within boundaries and against given goals. Teams choose how best to accomplish their work, rather than being directed by others outside the team.
The ScrumMaster is a facilitator for the team and product owner. Rather than manage the team, the ScrumMaster works to assist both the team and product owner in the following ways:
- Remove the barriers between the development and the product owner so that the product owner directly drives development.
- Teach the product owner how to maximize return on investment (ROI), and meet his/her objectives through Scrum.
- Improve the lives of the development team by facilitating creativity and empowerment.
- Improve the productivity of the development team in any way possible.
- Improve the engineering practices and tools so that each increment of functionality is potentially shippable.
- Keep information about the team’s progress up to date and visible to all parties.
a short, time-boxed piece of research, usually technical, on a single story that is intended to provide just enough information that the team can estimate the size of the story
An iteration of work during which an increment of product functionality is implemented. By the book, an iteration lasts 30 days. This is longer than in other agile methods to take into account the fact that a functional increment of product must be produced each sprint.
The sprint starts with a one-day sprint planning meeting. Many daily Scrum meetings occur during the sprint (one per day). At the end of the sprint we have a sprint review meeting, followed by a sprint retrospective meeting.
During the sprint, the team must not be interrupted with additional requests. Guaranteeing the team won’t be interrupted allows it to make real commitments it can be expected to keep.
Out of practical necessity, some teams choose to bend this rule by declaring some team members 80 percent available at the outset so they still have some cycles left for “Priority One” bugs and emergencies. But this is a slippery slope and should be avoided whenever possible.
Defines the work for a sprint, represented by the set of tasks that must be completed to realize the sprint’s goals, and selected set of product backlog items.
Sprint Burndown Chart
A sprint burndown chart (or “sprint burndown graph”) depicts the total task hours remaining per day. This shows you where your team stands regarding completing the tasks that comprise the product backlog items that achieve the goals of the sprint. The X-axis represents days in the sprint, while the Y-axis is effort remaining (usually in ideal engineering hours).
To motivate the team, the sprint burndown chart should be displayed prominently. It also acts as an effective information radiator . A manual alternative to this is a physical task board.
Ideally the chart burns down to zero by the end of the sprint. If the team members are reporting their remaining task hours realistically, the line should bump up and down chaotically. The profile shown below is typical, and demonstrates why the “percentage done” concept of traditional project management breaks down. Assuming we started measuring on July 26, what “percentage done” were we on July 28?
Sprint goals are the result of a negotiation between the product owner and the development team. Meaningful goals are specific and measurable. Instead of “Improve scalability” try “Handle five times as many users as version 0.8.” Scrum focuses on goals that result in demonstrable product. The product owner is entitled to expect demonstrable product (however small or flimsy) starting with the very first Sprint. In iterative development, subsequent Sprints can increase the robustness or size of the feature set.
Have your team commit to goals that anyone will be able to see are met (or not met) at the end of the sprint. At sprint review meetings, the sprint demonstration is conducted after which the team asks the product owner whether (s)he feels the goals were met.
While some specific product backlog items may not be done at the end of a sprint, it should be very unusual for a team not to meet its sprint goals. Scrum requires the team to notify the product owner as soon as it becomes aware it will not meet its goals.
Sprint Planning Meeting
The Sprint planning meeting is a negotiation between the team and the product owner about what the team will do during the next sprint.
The product owner and all team members agree on a set of sprint goals, which is used to determine which product backlog items to commit from the uncommitted backlog to the sprint. Often new backlog items are defined during the meeting. This portion of the sprint planning meeting is time-boxed to four hours.
Typically the team will then excuse the product owner from the room and break the backlog Items down into tasks. The product owner is expected to be on call during this phase (previously called the sprint definition meeting) for renegotiation or to answer questions that affect the time estimates. This portion of the sprint planning meeting is time-boxed to four hours. Sometimes teams insert placeholder tasks (with rough estimates) for the product backlog items they don’t expect to start working until later in the sprint.
Sprint Review Meeting
In Scrum, each sprint is required to deliver a potentially shippable product increment. This means that at the end of each sprint, the team has produced a coded, tested and usable piece of software.
So at the end of each sprint, a sprint review meeting is held. During this meeting, the Scrum team shows what they accomplished during the sprint. Typically this takes the form of a demo of the new features.
The sprint review meeting is intentionally kept very informal, typically with rules forbidding the use of PowerPoint slides and allowing no more than two hours of preparation time for the meeting. A sprint review meeting should not become a distraction or significant detour for the team; rather, it should be a natural result of the sprint.
Participants in the sprint review typically include the product owner, the Scrum team, the ScrumMaster, management, customers and developers from other projects.
During the sprint review, the project is assessed against the sprint goal determined during the sprint planning meeting. Ideally, the team has completed each product backlog item brought into the sprint, but it’s more important that they achieve the overall goal of the sprint.
Sprint Retrospective Meeting
The sprint retrospective meeting is held at the end of every sprint after the sprint review meeting. The team and ScrumMaster meet to discuss what went well and what to improve in the next sprint. The product owner does not attend this meeting.
The sprint retrospective should be time-boxed to three hours.
Kelley Louie (Certified Scrum Practitioner) writes: “The sprint retrospective meeting is an integral part of the inspect and adapt process. Otherwise, the team will never be able to improve their overall output and not focus on the overall team performance. The ScrumMaster must pay attention to this meeting and work towards resolving the impediments that may be slowing down the team.”
In Scrum, a sprint task (or task) is a unit of work generally between four and sixteen hours. Team members volunteer for tasks. They update the estimated number of hours remaining on a daily basis, influencing the sprint burndown chart. Tasks are contained by backlog items.
Scrum literature encourages splitting a task into several if the estimate exceeds twelve hours.
A person external to the Scrum Team with a specific interest in and knowledge of a product that is required for incremental discovery. Represented by the Product Owner and actively engaged with the Scrum Team at Sprint Review
A backlog item usually using the template form: as a [user] I want [function] so that [business value], cf Product Backlog Item.
A unit of measurement applied to the size of a story, cf. Fibonacci Sequence T-shirt sizes, powers of 2, are other ways of assigning Story Points.
The regular work session where items on the backlog are discussed, refined and estimated and the backlog is trimmed and prioritized.
The tasks needed to complete the set of stories committed to a sprint.
A wall chart with cards and sticky notes that represent all the work of a team in a given sprint; the task notes are moved across the board to show progress.
A team (or “Scrum team”) is optimally comprised of seven plus or minus two people.
For software development projects, the team members are usually a mix of software engineers, architects, programmers, analysts, QA experts, testers, UI designers, etc. This is often called “cross-functional project teams”. Agile practices also encourage cross-functional team members.
During a sprint, the team self-organizes to meet the sprint goals. The team has autonomy to choose how to best meet the goals, and is held responsible for them. The ScrumMaster acts as a guardian to ensure that the team is insulated from the product owner.
Scrum also advocates putting the entire team in one team room.
In Scrum parlance, a team member is defined as anyone working on sprint tasks toward the sprint goal.
A theme is a collection of related User Stories
a quick pulse to get a sense of where the team are in terms of commitment, or agreement on a decision, etc. thumb up generally means agree, yes, or good, and thumb down disagree, no or bad; the analog version of this allows the thumb to be anywhere on the half circle to indicate differing degrees of agreeability.
Setting a duration for every activity and having it last exactly that (i.e. neither meetings nor sprint are ever lengthened – ever).
In Scrum, velocity is how much product backlog effort a team can handle in one sprint. This can be estimated by viewing previous sprints, assuming the team composition and sprint duration are kept constant. It can also be established on a sprint-by-sprint basis, using commitment-based planning.
Once established, velocity can be used to plan projects and forecast release and product completion dates.
How can velocity computations be meaningful when backlog item estimates are intentionally rough? The law of large numbers tends to average out the roughness of the estimates.
A high-level description of a product which includes who it is for, why it is necessary and what differentiates it from similar products.
“The What” is a term used to describe the domain of the product owner, as distinct for the team, cf. How. Can also be described as strategy (i.e. what’s the best order for battles).
The set of development practices, including pair-programming, test-first, or test-driven development (TDD) and continuous refactoring, which are drawn from the XP methodology; many Scrum teams find these practices greatly improve productivity and team morale.